Union label dating
Originally the ITU was a comprehensive industrial union with a membership drawn from all phases of the printing process. The International Brotherhood of Bookbinders (IBB) was founded in 1892.
By the 1890's the production improvements included linotype machines, electric drives, and automatic paper feeders.
The International Stereotypers' and Electroplater's Union (IS&EU) was formed in 1902.
By the time the International Photoengraver's Union (IPEU) was formed in 1904 four separate unions represented the portion of the printing trade outside the composing room.
The United Typothetae of America (UTA) was founded to represent the interests of printshop owners in response to the outrageous demand by the ITU for a nine-hour day in the late 1880's.
In 1899 the UTA passed a resolution deprecating the use of the union label by its members and encouraged them to stop putting the label on work produced in their shops.