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The heavier atoms are found in less abundance in rain or snow falling from air that has cooled greatly (even to the extent that water can be typical of a season and the season typical of a year), another characteristic found in the dripping water in the cave.
As with trees, speleothems commonly display annual layers which may be visible when a sample is polished, or recognised through chemical analyses.Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. They grow slowly, at rates of between 1 mm a year to 0.001 mm a year.For example, the summer patterns of East Asian monsoon activity gradually change over thousands of years as the Earth’s orbit wobbles.Likewise changes in the abundance of carbon atoms, or the amounts of particular elements can be analysed and interpreted, for example in terms of changing aridity.