Histological dating endometrium
The endometrium changes in thickness and structure with the menstrual cycle.The stratum compactum and the stratum spongiosum constitute the pars functionalis and are shed with each menstrual flow.Where fertilization does not occur, it regresses, or in the case of humans, anthropoid apes and Old-World monkeys, it breaks down over a few days, producing bleeding. Expression and regulation of prostaglandin transporters, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 1 and 9, and solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 and 5A1 in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in pigs cancer, and it is widely considered to develop from endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma, which is related to malignant transformation of the endometrial surface epithelium (such as a benign endometrial polyp).is the best accessible tissue for histopathological evaluation of uterine bleeding, several methods are used for endometrial sampling among which the dilatation of the cervix and curettage of the uterine cavity under general anaesthesia has long been the gold standard for the assessment of AUB.The mucous membrane comprising the inner layer of the uterine wall; it consists of a simple columnar epithelium and a lamina propria that contains simple tubular uterine glands.The structure, thickness, and state of the endometrium undergo marked change with the menstrual cycle.Also it has been reported that a defective luteal phase should be suspected only when endometrial histology lags at least 3 d behind the prospective chronological dating of the biopsy (8).Finally, our sequential study of endometrial biopsy specimens in infertile patients showed that at least two endometrial biopsies from separate cycles are needed to evaluate endometrial function, and a third biopsy must be taken in patients with divergent findings in the first two endometrial biopsies (9).
All patients underwent three endometrial biopsies in consecutive spontaneous cycles, regardless of the previous histological findings.Unless this finding was consistent and repetitive, it could not be considered as a factor responsible for infertility (1).More recently, endometrial biopsy for assessment of the luteal phase has been reviewed, and this includes when to perform the biopsy, the number of lag days that should be required to consider a sample abnormal, and the chronological reference point.A NORMAL ENDOMETRIAL milieu is essential in embryo implantation, and understanding the factors that contribute to a receptive endometrium is, at present, a pivotal area of research.Traditionally, this has been accomplished by histological dating of the endometrial biopsy specimen obtained in the late secretory phase (1, 2).
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Thus, recent evidence suggests that earlier sampling during the window of implantation (.