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The new millennium promises excitement and hope for the future by new ad- vancement in eco-friendly technologies in integrated disease management of fruits and vegetables. Plant Pathology has witnessed a dramatic advancement in management of fruits and vegetable diseases through in-depth investi- gations of host-pathogen interactions, development of molecular diagnostic tools, inte- gration of new concepts, principles and approaches. USA e-mail: [email protected] FAX: USA(909) 684 4324 Phone: USA (909) 684 0934 18. Skaria, Mani Texas A&M University, Kingsville Citras Center, 312 North International Blvd., Weslaco, TX 78596, USA Fax:956/ 969.0649 Phone:956/ 968.2132 e-mail:[email protected] The chapter does not provide a description of every disease that occurs on apple, a function that is better fulfilled by the APS Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases (Jones and Aldwinckle 1990). A survey of declining trees in the field orchards at the University of California at Riverside (UCR) revealed the presence of severe seedling yellows and stem pitting isolates of CTV.
My effort in bringing out this edited book is to update the achievements of twentieth century in diagnosis and management of diseases of fruits and vegetables of international trade and some under-exploited minor fruits which otherwise are widely dispersed in various scientific journals and to develop future strategies for the new millennium. Departamento de Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agricola, ESALQ/USP, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP, BRAZIL Phone: (19) 3429-4124. Nor is this a comprehensive literature review on the selected diseases. There appeared to be a direct association between the presence of seedling yellows tristeza and decline (Roistacher, 1981a, 1981b).
Like Irish potato famine, the citrus tristeza virus has been highly destructive and this single pathogen could ravage citrus industry of many countries like Argentina, Brazil etc. Budwood certifica- tion programme developed to get rid of these viruses is very effective but still in coun- tries where it has not been adopted fully are facing the problem of low productivity and short productive life of Citrus plants. For the first six years results were very promising.
In certain parts of the world, FV are the major dietary staple. A Predictive Program for Forecasting Fire Blight Diseases in Apples and Pears. Some of the rootstocks found tolerant to CTV are the trifoliate orange and its hybrids i.e. Also the rough lemon, Volkamer lemon, Rangpur lime and Cleopatra mandarin are tolerant to CTV.
The famous Irish potato famine is a well-known example where single disease could devastate the whole socio-economic fabric of the country and in fact laid a strong foundation of Plant Pathology. There are three general types of tristeza which can cause tree decline, i. In an excellent three part series reviewing his lifelong experiences with tristeza, Mc Clean 1977a, 1977b, 1977c) described the three types of decline induced by tristeza.
In given favourable con- ditions, even a single pathogen or disease may cause catastrophe and complete failure of the crop. Targon et ai, (2000) showed that the mild protective CTV isolate in Brazil, replicated faster and at a higher titer than the severe isolate in the tissues of all samples evaluated.
Diseases of Fruits and Vegeta Wes Diagnosis and Management Volume I Edited by S. But production is already being reduced and may very well cease entirely within ten years. There is evidence that this more severe form of CTV can directly affect scions of citrus causing debilitation and even death of the trees. Quick decline developments (map showing decline on sour orange rootstock).
Rampant eruption of new races of banana pathogens and their rapid resis- tant development to new fungicides has posed a threat to banana industry in Africa that produces around 30 million tons of bananas yearly, which is mostly consumed locally. Symptoms are a severe reduction in size of the inoculated seedling plus severe chlorosis and yellowing of the foliage.
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Naqvi National Research Centre for Citrus (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), Nagpur, Maharashtra, India KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBLISHERS NEW YORK, BOSTON, DORDRECHT, LONDON, MOSCOW e Book ISBN: 1-4020-2606-4 Print ISBN: 1-4020-1822-3 ©2004 Springer Science Business Media, Inc. Diagnosis and Management of Virus and Virus like Diseases of Citrus 109 C. In favourable environ- ment conditions, the pathogen attack may reduce the productivity significantly and may also become the cause of total crop failure. They concluded that though a number of SY-CTV isolates used provided good protection “a few immunized trees developed symptoms as severe as those of the healthy control trees”.